Sno Title Type URL Theme Country Abstract Regions Keywords Rank Comments Available in DC
1
FAO. 2005. Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 10. Rome, FAO. 79 pp.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/a0237e/a0237e00.pdf
Small-scale fisheries N/a
The objectives of these Technical Guidelines are to provide a focus on small-scale fisheries and their current and potential role in contributing to poverty alleviation and food security by expanding on the guidance on small-scale fisheries offered by the Code. The Guidelines are complementary to existing Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries.
1
No
2
FAO. 2005. Report of the FAO/WorldFish Center Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Assessment of Small-Scale Fisheries. Rome, 20–22 September 2005. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 787. Rome, FAO. 44pp.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/a0216e/a0216e00.pdf
N/a
The Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Assessment of Small-Scale Fisheries (Rome, 20–22 September 2005) was organized jointly by the WorldFish Center and FAO through its FishCode Programme as a first step in developing a collaborative project towards capacity building for small-scale fisheries assessment in developing countries. Participants represented various international and national agencies and academic institutions as well as private firms, and were invited on the basis of their extensive experience in small-scale fisheries either from a natural or social science background.
1
No
3
Social issues in small-scale fisheries
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meeting/011/j8992e.pdf
Small-scale fisheries N/a
This paper presented at the 27th session of the COFI, argues that more attention should be given to social issues in small-scale fisheries. Fishing communities often lack awareness, opportunity and cohesive social institutions to be able to self-organise, articulate their demands, negotiate with government agencies and actively participate in the planning of their own future. Poverty, vulnerability and low levels of social development compromise the ability of small-scale fishers to adopt responsible fishing practices and participate in co-management and community-based fisheries management regimes. Social development issues can be addressed through various sectoral policies relating to education, health, social insurance and others. A human rights perspective provides an overarching approach to addressing social development which has been widely adopted in the UN system.
1
No
4
FAO. 2005. Report of the FAO/WorldFish Center Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Assessment of Small-Scale Fisheries. Rome, 20–22 September 2005. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 787. Rome, FAO. 44pp
books
http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0216e/a0216e00.htm
N/a
The Workshop on Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Assessment of Small-Scale
Fisheries (Rome, 20–22 September 2005) was organized jointly by the WorldFish Center and FAO through its FishCode Programme as a first step in developing a collaborative project towards capacity building for small-scale fisheries assessment in developing countries. Participants represented various international and national agencies and academic institutions as well as private firms, and were invited on the basis of their extensive experience in small-scale fisheries either from a natural or social science background.
1
No
5
Small-scale fisheries development in Southeast Asia. 1989. Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Philippines.117p.
Documents and Reports
N/a
This publication is the of report of the “Regional consultation on small scale fisheries development in Southeast Asia” held in Bangkok 26-28 April 1988.It brings out the problems and needs of small fishermen organizations. The publication highlights the status of small-scale fisheries development in Malaysia, Thai land, Philippines and Indonesia.
1
No
6
UNGA, 2012. The Right to Food. Interim report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. United Nations General Assembly, Item 70 (b) of the provisional agenda: Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms A/67/150 dated 8 August 2012.
Documents and Reports
http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/officialreports/20121030_fish_en.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
Global marine and inland fisheries provide food security to millions of people, supplying a vital source of high-quality dietary protein and supporting livelihoods and incomes. It is widely acknowledged, however, that the productivity of global fisheries as a source of food is declining, caused primarily by unsustainable and destructive fishing practices and distorting subsidies, and aggravated by climate change. In the present report, the Special Rapporteur identifies the challenges facing global fisheries and examines how the individuals most vulnerable to negative impacts (the residents of developing coastal and island countries, especially low income food-deficit countries) can be supported to ensure the progressive realization of the right to food, noting that pursuing a human rights approach is critical to achieving sustainable development in the fisheries sector
General
Rights,Food Security,Human Rights,DFT,Income,Sustainable Development
4
No
7
Sharma, Chandrika. Securing economic, social and cultural rights of small-scale and artisanal fisherworkers and fishing communities. MAST 2011, 10(2): 41-61
Documents and Reports
http://www.marecentre.nl/mast/documents/MAST10.2_Sharma.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
Given the international consensus on achieving human rights, the paper stresses that committed action to realizing the human rights of fishing communities, as indeed of all vital, yet marginalized groups and communities, is really not a matter of choice. It is an obligation. The paper provides concrete proposals for securing social, economic and cultural rights of small-scale fishing communities. These proposals, in the main, seek the implementation of provisions that already exist in existing international legislation, including customary law. The paper also draws attention to the challenges that will need to be overcome in adopting and implementing a human rights approach to fisheries and fishing communities. A comprehensive and coherent policy approach, internationally, nationally and locally, to securing rights of fishing communities, is essential. Investment in building the capacity of both right holders and duty bearers is one of the most important steps necessary for translating commitment into action.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Human Rights,Policy,Fishing Communities,Culture
5
No
8
Charles, Anthony. Good Practices in the Governance of Small-Scale Fisheries, with a Focus on Rights-Based Approaches. http://husky1.smu.ca/~charles/
Documents and Reports
http://husky1.smu.ca/~charles/
Small-scale fisheries World
This paper presents a review of what are seen as ‘good practices’ globally in policy and governance of small-scale fisheries, with a particular focus on addressing rights-based issues, viewed broadly as incorporating fishery rights, other rights to natural resources, and rights and entitlements in relation to human, social and economic rights. It draws extensively on the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and related technical guidelines, , particularly those concerning small-scale fisheries and their roles in poverty alleviation and food security, and the human dimensions of the ecosystem approach to fisheries. The paper is also strongly informed by the papers prepared for and outcomes of the 2008 Global Conference on “Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries: Bringing together responsible fisheries and social development” and the relevant rights-oriented components of the ‘Bangkok Statement’ produced by the Civil Society Preparatory Workshop for the Global Conference. It also draws upon a set of research documents in the international literature focusing on small-scale fisheries and related policy issues
General
Small Scale Fisheries,CCRF,Poverty,rights-based,Ecosystem Approach
5
No
9
UNEP, 2005. Artisanal Fishing: Promoting Poverty Reduction and Community Development Through New WTO Rules on Fisheries Subsidies. Working Draft, June 2005. [Prepared by David K.Schorr; Commissioned by The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Economics and Trade Branch (ETB)]
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
Since the earliest days of dialogue over fisheries subsidies at the WTO, it has been clear that “artisanal fishing” presents a special case. Although never precisely defined, the term has been repeatedly used to identify a set of interests and people likely to need particular treatment under new WTO fishing subsidy disciplines. The urge to protect “artisanal fishing”—and, in essence, to provide certain derogations from new fisheries subsidies disciplines for artisanal fishing—thus has a relatively clear basis. Less well understood, however, is how this urge can or should be translated into practice within new WTO fisheries subsidies rules. As a contribution to the ongoing international dialogue, this paper aims to elucidate some of the technical and political issues underlying that question. In particular, this paper seeks to provide an analytic framework to facilitate discussion of two basic practical questions: (1) What should be the scope of any special rules for subsidies to artisanal fisheries? In particular, what should be the definition of "artisanal fishing" within the ASCM? (2) What limits or disciplines should apply to subsidies to artisanal fisheries under new WTO rules? Are there substantive conditions that should be applied? Procedural conditions?
Rather than proposing definitive answers to these questions, this paper provides an analytic framework, and perhaps a few provocative words, in the hope of aiding discussion among governments and other stakeholders.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Artisanal Fisheries,subsidies,WTO
5
No
10
Allison, E. Building resilient small-scale coastal fisheries and aquaculture through livelihood diversification. A power point presentation. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Cambodia
This presentation has four parts. The first looks at the aims of livelihood diversification programmes in a fisheries and aquaculture sector context. Then, the meaning and scope of livelihood diversification processes is discussed. After this, a few good practice case studies are presented from Nicaragua, Cambodia, Kenya, Philippines and Mozambique and finally, best practice principles for diversification programmes are listed. The presentation concludes that successful diversification programmes have to be based on clear policy aims, participatory processes, multi‐sectoral and multi‐scale interventions, and will build on existing capacities.
Africa,Asia
Livelihood,Small Scale Fisheries,Aquaculture,diversification,resilience
4
No
11
Sowman, M. New perspectives in small-scale fisheries management: challenges and prospects for implementation in South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 2011, 33(2): 297–311
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries South Africa
Worldwide, the past 15–20 years has seen a significant shift in thinking and approaches to the management of small-scale fisheries. This is in response to the recognition that conventional fisheries management is not equipped to deal with the complexities, uncertainties and challenges prevalent in small-scale fishery systems. Consequently, a new fisheries paradigm is emerging based on the principles and ideas underpinning systems thinking, complexity theory, participatory democracy and adaptive management. Although fishery science is required to inform management decisions, it must be seen as one of the inputs needed for effective governance. Incorporation of other disciplinary perspectives, knowledge sources and local information is considered necessary for understanding the fishery system and identifying appropriate management responses. Although South Africa has incorporated many of these ideas and principles into broad policies and legislation governing resource management, implementation of this new paradigm in the context of small-scale fisheries is proving difficult. However, recent developments such as the recognition of the socio-economic rights of this group of fishers, the formulation of a new draft small-scale fisheries policy, efforts to identify and address human dimensions in fisheries through research and stakeholder workshops, as well as opportunities for greater participation in policy formulation and management, are all indicative of a shift in institutional culture and approach to this sector. This paper aims to provide an overview of the main ideas underpinning the new small-scale fisheries paradigm and explores the application of these ideas in the context of small-scale fisheries in South Africa. Challenges and prospects for implementing this new management paradigm are discussed, as well as some practical ideas for progressing this new approach.
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Traditional Fisheries,Socio-economic Aspects,Governance
4
No
12
Béné, Christophe and Richard M. Friend. Poverty in small-scale fisheries : old issue, new analysis. Progress in Development Studies 2011 11: 119. DOI: 10.1177/146499341001100203
Documents and Reports
http://pdj.sagepub.com/content/11/2/119
Small-scale fisheries Burkina Faso
Using a new framework combining vulnerability and exclusion as two central dimensions of poverty, this article revisits some of the long-standing beliefs about poverty in small-scale fisheries. We argue that the issue of poverty in fish-dependent communities cannot be reduced to a simple correlation between income poverty and fishery dependence. A more thorough analysis is required that must account for the diversity of fishing-related livelihoods and the complexity of causes of poverty, both inside and outside the sector. The article highlights how poverty in fishing communities often relates to a wide range of socio-institutional factors other than income, including landownership, debt, access to health, education and financial capital, and marginalisation from political decision making. The empirical examples used in this article refer to inland capture fisheries from the Volta and Mekong basins but, arguably, the analysis applies to other fisheries (inland and coastal) in developing countries.
Africa,Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Poverty,Socio-economic Aspects,Institutions
4
No
13
Pomeroy, R.S. and Neil Andrew. Small-scale Fisheries Management: Frameworks and Approaches for the Developing World. CAB International, 2011
books
Small-scale fisheries World
This book is about small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the developing world. Globally, about 97% of the people directly involved in fisheries work in the developing world and they catch about half the total world catch. In the developing world, SSF account for 56% of catch and 91 % of people working in fisheries. Small-scale fisheries make important but poorly quantified contributions to national and regional economies, to the food security and development of many millions of people and provide an important lever for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, particularly within rural areas. The book is composed of 12 chapters from authors who have years on small-scale fisheries management all over the world. Topics covered include under-reported and under-valued SSF in developing countries, approaches and frameworks for management and research, human rights and fishery rights, managing overcapacity, adaptive management, co-management, climate change and external drivers, markets, communication, social justice, poverty reduction and resilience.
General
Developing Countries,Small Scale Fisheries,Human Rights,Rights,Overcapacity,resilience,Co-management,Climate Change,Markets,Poverty
4
No
14
Sverdrup-Jensen, S and J.R. Nielsen. Co-management in small-scale fisheries: A synthesis of Southern and West African experiences. In Normann A.K, J. Raakjær Nielsen & S. Sverdrup-Jensen (eds.), (1998), Fisheries Co-management in Africa. Proceedings from a regional workshop on fisheries co-management research, Fisheries Co-management Research Project Research Report No 12, Hirtshals, IFM.
Documents and Reports
http://www.oceandocs.org/bitstream/1834/617/1/Co-Man16.pdf
Small-scale fisheries Benin
This presentation summarizes the findings from eight African countries where case studies of co-management arrangements in artisanal fisheries have been undertaken during the period 1996-97. The countries concerned are Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In most of the cases co-management represents a new approach to fisheries management. In some cases, it has only been applied within the last 3-5 years and in a few it is merely being considered as an option. The comparison of cases at this early stage gives an indication as to what
appear to be the critical issues in the planning and implementation of fisheries co-management arrangements in the African context. The incentives of fishers and other stakeholders to cooperate among themselves and with government in the management of those fisheries in which they are involved are of two types. On the one hand the level of cooperation is determined by a number of key factors relating to the local politico-historical, biophysical, economic and socio-cultural environment of the fishing communities and the fisheries. On the other, the incentives for cooperation are determined by the character of the decision-making arrangements in place for setting collective choice rules and, in particular, the operational rules for the fishery and thus the legitimacy of the arrangement in the eyes of the fishers. The cases studied differ significantly as regards the political history of the countries and the character
of their artisanal fisheries.
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Co-management,Governance
4
No
15
The SADC Protocol on Fisheries and the Artisanal Fisheries Sector.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Africa
This paper looks at how the SADC Protocol on Fisheries deals with the artisanal fisheries sector and the implications for the efforts of SADC artisanal fish workers organizations to engage constructively with SADC institutions in the promotion of artisanal fisheries sector development throughout the Southern African Region. As an annex to this paper the general objectives and guiding principles of the SADC Fisheries Protocol and national responsibilities stemming from the Protocol are reproduced.
Africa
Access Agreements,Small Scale Fisheries,Artisanal Fisheries,Fishworkers,Fishworkers Organisation
4
No
16
Jacquet, Jennifer and Daniel Pauly, Funding Priorities: Big Barriers to Small-scale fisheries. Conservation Biology, 22(4):832-835. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00978.x
Documents and Reports
http://www.seaaroundus.org/researcher/dpauly/PDF/2008/JournalArticles/FundingPriorities.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
Since the mid 1990s there has been a concerted effort to encourage fisheries sustainability by targeting large scale, high catch fisheries and by raising consumer awareness. Because of the often slow pace of regulatory approaches, this voluntary market-oriented effort has been restructured so as to avoid government involvement. Although ssf are potentially and in many cases actually more sustainable than large-scale fisheries, they are disadvantaged because of their typical remoteness, lack of infrastructure and marginal political power. The paper discusses a recent additional barrier to trade from well-intentioned sustainable fisheries initiatives such as ecolabelling. The paper discusses the problem of data poverty in fisheries such as the ssf because of which sustainability criteria are difficult to define.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,ECOLABELING,Data
4
No
17
McGoodwin, James R., The world’s fisheries in crisis and change at the dawn of the new millennium: implications or fisheries governance and food security. Keynote address to the seminar of the Fisheries Governance and Food Security Network (FISHGOVFOOD), European Union, September 3-4, 2001.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
This address discusses the twin and interlinked concerns of fisheries governance and food security in developing countries. A continuation of trends promoting more participatory modes of governance involving both government fisheries officials and members of the fisheries sector is urged. The continuing decline in the world’s fisheries is also discussed with particular regard for its dire implications for future food security in developing countries. Moreover it is argued that this decline may be greatly exacerbated by climatic and environmental change resulting from global warming. Thus, not only are more participatory modes of governance urged, but also more flexible ones which can more effectively respond to rapid environmental change in fisheries. In the new millennium, old approaches may not be effective and new and more creative kinds of thinking and approaches will be required.
General
Developing Countries,Governance,Small Scale Fisheries,Food Security,Climate Change
4
No
18
Tvedten, I and B. Hersoug. Fishing for Development. Small-scale fisheries in Africa. Nordic Africa Insitute, Uppsala 1992.
books
Small-scale fisheries Africa
This book is a collection of papers presented at the seminar “Socio-economic Conditions for Development of Artisanal Fisheries in Africa”. The papers are of two main categories: one presents the socio-economic aspects of the sector per se, while the other is concerned with artisanal fishery development efforts
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Africa,Socio-economic Aspects,Artisanal Fisheries,Development
4
No
19
Kura, Yumiko Carmen Revenga, Eriko Hoshino and Greg Mock. Fishing for Answers: Making sense of the global fish crisis. World Resources Institute. October, 2004
books
http://www.wri.org/publication/fishing-answers-making-sense-global-fish-crisis
Small-scale fisheries World
For millennia, harvesting resources from the seas, lakes, and rivers has been a source of sustenance and livelihood for millions of people. That is nearly as true today as it was a century ago. Yet, the nature of the fishing enterprise and the condition of the marine and freshwater resources it relies on could hardly have changed more radically over the last 100 years. In the last half century, a tide of new technology–from diesel engines to driftnets—has swept aside the limits that once kept fishing a mostly coastal and local affair. The result has been a rapid depletion of key stocks, and serious disruption and degradation of the marine and freshwater ecosystems they live in–what many have termed a “global fisheries crisis.” Unfortunately, pressure on fish stocks is primed to increase even as stock conditions continue to worsen. Demand for seafood products is projected to continue growing at 1.5 percent per year through 2020. Despite these troubling statistics, most people have little idea of what the “fisheries crisis” is, or what it means to them. From a consumer’s point of view the sad condition of fish stocks is not obvious. There are still plenty of fish available in markets and restaurants, although the types and prices may have changed. So are we really running out of fish? Are coastal ecosystems nearing collapse? The purpose of Fishing for Answers: Making Sense of the Global Fish Crisis is to answer some of these questions and help consumers, environmental organizations, and policy-makers deepen their understanding of the issues surrounding global fisheries and find their potential roles in creating a political and economic environment that will foster sustainability in fishing.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Fish Harvesting,Overfishing
4
No
20
Seilert, Heiko and Suchat Sangchan. Small-Scale Fishery in Southeast Asia: A Case Study in Southern Thailand. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok Thailand. RAP Publication 2001/19. 63 p.
books
http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ab384e/ab384e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries Thailand
This study of small-scale fishery along the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand can be divided into three sections. The first section, based on the Marine Fishery Census of Thailand, provides the socio-geographic background of fishery, i.e. the numbers of fishing villages, households and fisherfolk. The second section, based on all data collected, provides an in-depth view of the three main types of small-scale fishing gear used along the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. In the final section, the estimated catch and income data are combined with the socio-geographic data to obtain an overall view of small-scale fishery and to develop management recommendations to support small-scale fisherfolk.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Fishing Communities,Fishing Boats,Catch,diversification,Livelihood
4
No
21
Small-scale Fisheries Research Needs. The World Bank/United Nations Development Programme/Commission of the European Communities/Food and Agriculture Organization. World Bank Technical Paper Number 152, Fisheries Series.
Documents and Reports
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000178830_98101904141052/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
This Working Group Report examines the critical problems affecting small-scale fisheries research. It first deals with an outline and diagnosis of the different small-scale fishery situations. This is followed by a more detailed discussion of fisheries management and associated fisheries research needs. It concludes with an assessment of the constraints to undertaking research.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Policy
3
No
22
Eythorsson, E. Voices of the weak – relational aspects of local ecological knowledge in the fisheries. Chapter 11 in Commons in a Cold Climate (Ed: S. Jentoft). 185-204. Man and Biosphere Series, UNESCO, 1998,
books
Small-scale fisheries Finland
This documents the importance of local knowledge of the fishermen and looks into the rise and fall of industrialized whaling in Finnmark. The local spawning stocks and the concept of local knowledge which is defined by spatial and structural relations are also focused upon.
Europe
Small Scale Fisheries,Local knowladge,Traditional Fisheries
4
No
23
Small Fishermen in Asia speak out. Bangkok, May 1978.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Asia
After three days of deliberations, the small fishermen gathered in the seminar decided to draft a manifesto of their rights and to draw attention to the problems facing them. Eighteen resolutions were finally adopted for the manifesto after careful consideration and resolute examination.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Rights
3
No publication details available
No
24
Castilla, Juan C. and Miriam Fernandez Small-Scale Benthic Fisheries in Chile: On Co-Management and Sustainable Use of Benthic Invertebrates. Ecological Applications Vol. 8, No. 1, Supplement: Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries (Feb., 1998), pp. S124-S132.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Chile
The authors discuss the issues of sustainable use and management in the Chilean inshore benthic small-scale (artisanal) fisheries. The fishery benefits from two features that make it possible to overcome some of the problems of conventional management. These are: (1) major advances have been made in understanding relevant ecological processes, and (2) this knowledge has been institutionalized in the 1991 Chilean Fishing and Aquaculture Law (FAL). FAL legalizes the use of community-owned shellfish grounds, so-called "Management and Exploitation Areas" (MEA); this practice is considered to confer quasiproperty rights to fishers' unions. Management plans for these areas have to be approved by the government. This co-management approach solves one of the major problem in many fisheries: overexploitation. In addition, the study of the MEAs could provide useful information, if they are considered as "replicates," in evaluating the effect of human perturbation and different management regimes. The authors think that by using the different tools provided by the FAL on the spatial arrangement of the small-scale fishery and answering certain key ecological questions, the sustainable use of inshore benthic resources in Chile (e.g., gastropods, sea urchins, and algae) via an ecosystem approach can be achieved in the near future.
Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,Benthic Fisheries,Ecosystem Approach,Property rights
4
No
25
Kurien, John. Special issues and requirements in the management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. For use as an Annexe to the guidelines for Responsible Fisheries Management. Prepared by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, August 1996.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
There is now increasingly widespread concern in developing countries about making small-scale fisheries ecologically sustainable, economically viable, culturally vibrant and managed with greater and more meaningful input by genuine small-scale fish harvesters to ensure the long-term sustainability of coastal communities. This document examines and suggests some broad guidelines for those who wish to get started on thinking about the management of such small-scale fisheries. It needs to be read in consonance with the guidelines for fisheries management of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
General
Developing Countries,Small Scale Fisheries,CCRF,Fisheries Management
4
No
26
Branch, GM., M Hauck, N Siqwana-Ndulo and AH Dye. Defining fishers in the South African context: subsistence, artisanal and small-scale commercial sectors. African Journal of Marine Science 2002, 24: 475–487
Documents and Reports
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajms/article/view/33414
Small-scale fisheries South Africa
Evolution of a new policy for the management of marine fisheries in South Africa led to the Marine Living Resources Act of 1998 (MLRA). Among other innovations, this requires that management strategies be developed for subsistence fisheries. As a prerequisite, definitions and criteria are needed to identify and distinguish them. To achieve this, the Chief Director of Marine & Coastal Management (MCM), the authority responsible for managing marine fisheries, appointed a Subsistence Fisheries Task Group (SFTG) to make recommendations about definitions and modes of management. The process involved successive surveys and consultations with fishing communities, communication with MCM, and a national workshop of all participants. This led to consensus about the following definition: Subsistence fishers are poor people who personally harvest marine resources as a source of food or to sell them to meet the basic needs of food security; they operate on or near to the shore or in estuaries, live in close proximity to the resource, consume or sell the resources locally, use low-technology gear (often as part of a long-standing community-based or cultural practice), and the kinds of resources they harvest generate only sufficient returns to meet the basic needs of food security.

This definition builds on the facts that existing subsistence fisheries are usually: (1) local operations; (2) customary, traditional or cultural; (3) undertaken for personal or family use; (4) primarily for nutritional needs (though excess resources may be sold to ensure food security); (5) based on minimal technology; and (6) undertaken by people with low cash incomes. They are specifically non-commercial and non-recreational. The definition was designed to allow protection of the rights of these people and sustainability of the resources. While developing this definition, it became obvious that the definition of “commercial fishing” in the MLRA is also inadequate, and a new definition was developed. Commercial fisheries span a wide spectrum, and the SFTG defined “small-scale commercial fishers” as a distinct component that has not received adequate attention, and for whom specific management plans need to be developed. They are distinguished by living on or close to the coast, having a history of involvement with fishing, being personally involved in hands-on day-to-day running of their enterprises, operating with limited amounts of capital investment and low levels of technology, and employing small numbers of people.
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Subsistence Fisheries
4
No
27
Bene, Christophe. Small-Scale Fisheries: Assessing their Contribution to Rural Livelihoods in Developing Countries. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1008. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2006, 46p.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/j7551e/j7551e00.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
Traditionally, the contribution, role and importance of small-scale fisheries have often been described in thematic terms such as economic, social, employment and source of food. However, the contributions of small-scale fisheries are often interlinked and interdependent and some of their major contributions lie at the interface between these themes/sectors rather than within each. Also some of the major contributions to small-scale fisheries result from the synergies between various domains particularly economic and social aspects as conventionally recognized. In keeping with the vision for small-scale fisheries as proposed by the Advisory Committee on Fisheries Research (ACFR) Working Party on Small-scale Fisheries, it would seem appropriate to give in any such analysis due regard to the evolving concepts of food security, poverty alleviation, rural and economic development as well as the environmental and cultural dimensions of small-scale fisheries. The analysis incorporates these various concepts and moves away from the more conventional sector type or thematic approach.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Rural Development,Livelihood
4
No
28
Panayotou, T., 1982 Management concepts for small-scale fisheries: economic and social aspects. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap., (228): 53 p
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/X6844E/X6844E00.HTM
Small-scale fisheries Brazil
This paper provides an analytical framework for the management and development of coastal small-scale fisheries in developing countries. In a brief review the basic management concepts developed for single-species fisheries are presented and their appropriateness is examined for the management and development of small-scale multi-species fisheries. Apart from the higher biological complexity of multi-species fisheries the traditional management concepts also need refinement for socio-economic reasons. The paper describes the constraints under which many small-scale fishermen operate, viz., resource limitation, conflicts with large-scale fisheries, lack of geographical and occupational mobility and lack of alternative employment opportunities. These constraints may temporarily call for higher levels of fishing effort than justifiable from a pure economic efficiency point of view. Still, any long-term improvements in the living standard of small-scale fishermen will necessitate some forms of human intervention, which allocate the resource between different sections of the fishing industry and in general limit the expansion of fishing effort to prevent wastage of capital and human resources. The paper discusses various measures to regulate fishing effort in small-scale fisheries, viz., selectivity of gear; seasonal and area closures; catch quotas; limits on the number of fishing units, on the quantity of gear, or on the catching capacity of vessels; economic controls such as taxes, royalties or licence fees; and resource allocation through territorial rights. The choice among these management alternatives should be based on a set of criteria which include: acceptance by the fishermen, gradual implementation, flexibility, encouragement of efficiency and innovation, full cognizance of regulation and enforcement costs, and due attention to employment and distributional implications. Owing to the geographically dispersed nature of artisanal fisherfolk settlements, the revival and rejuvenation of traditional territorial community rights over coastal resources offer perhaps the best possible management option for small-scale fisheries. Instead of attempting to control fishing directly, such rights aim at creating a conducive environment of self-control by the fishermen themselves. The paper concludes with a presentation of some examples of traditional territorial fishing rights in Brazil, Japan, Sri Lanka and Ivory Coast.
Africa,Asia,Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Fishing Rights,Traditional management practices,Conflicts
5
No
29
FAO/RAP/FIPL, 2004. A research agenda for small-scale fisheries. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP PUBLICATION No. 2004/21 and FIPL/C 10009 (En) 42 pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.apfic.org/apfic_downloads/pubs_RAP/2004-21.PDF
Small-scale fisheries Reunion
Small-scale fisheries make an important contribution to nutrition, food security, sustainable livelihoods and poverty alleviation, especially in developing countries. Despite this significant contribution, the issues constraining the sustainable development of small-scale fisheries remain poorly understood. FAO has recently developed a vision for small-scale fisheries where: their contribution to sustainable development is fully realized. It is a vision where small-scale fishers and fish workers are not marginalizes and their contribution to national economies and food security is recognized, valued and enhanced. It also recognises that these people should be empowered to participate in decision-making with dignity and respect through integrated management of the social, economic and ecological systems underpinning small-scale fisheries. To achieve this vision, a range of issues will need to be addressed, supported by timely and accurate information on which to base decisions and action. These issues are grouped around five major themes:
● policy, legislation, governance and institutional arrangements;
● contribution, role and importance of small-scale fisheries;
● management approaches to small-scale fisheries;
● post-harvest issues and trade; and
● Information systems.
This publication provides analyses of the above issues and develops a research agenda to address identified information gaps. These include research on fisheries policies and
legislation and their relevance to small-scale fisheries, linkages between small-scale fisheries and large-scale fisheries, linkages with other sectors, structure and institutional arrangements in small-scale fisheries, trade-offs between policy objectives, how to measure the contribution of small-scale fisheries, how to tailor fisheries management to the small-scale sub-sector, improving post-harvest and trade for small-scale fisheries products, and developing information systems that organize the information in a form that is useful and relevant to the different stakeholders. A much greater emphasis is placed on socioeconomic research to augment the more biotechnical approach adopted in the past. The final section provides a discussion on strategies and mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and action, a step vital to the implementation of policies and management actions to address the issues in small-scale fisheries.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Research and Development,Policy,Governance,Legislation,Institutions,Fisheries Management,Trade,PHF
5
No
30
Macfeyden, G. Policy Objectives, Legal Frameworks, Institutions and Governance in Small-scale Fisheries. In FAO/Advisory Committee on Fisheries Research. Report of the second session of the Working Party on Small-scale Fisheries. Bangkok, Thailand, 18-21 November 2003. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 735. Rome, FAO. 2004. 21p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5245e/y5245e08.htm#bm8.3
Small-scale fisheries Sierra Leone
This paper is presented to the FAO Advisory Committee on Fisheries Research (ACFR) Working Party on small-scale fisheries for its consideration. It explores the priority given to small-scale fisheries as reflected in policy objectives set specifically for the sector, the extent to which these objectives are reflected in legislation and perhaps most importantly, the extent to which such objectives and legislation are reflected in management actions. The paper also comments on particular challenges that small-scale fisheries present in adhering to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF). The relative importance given to small-scale fisheries in different countries is further explored by considering the degree to which small-scale fishers are involved in policy formation and management actions, how issues of conflict between small-scale fisheries and other sectors are dealt with, and the extent to which incentives and subsidies are provided to sector. The paper presents a number of research topics related to these issues that are felt to be of importance.

The paper is based primarily on information collected and analysed from 40 small-scale fisheries practitioners from around the world, in response to a questionnaire prepared and sent to those indicating they would be prepared to complete it. The paper also presents an interesting case study on Sierra Leone, which is especially pertinent to many of the questions raised in the paper and the associated Terms of Reference.
Africa,General
Small Scale Fisheries,Legal Issues,Institutions,Governance,CCRF
4
No
31
Overa, R. Institutions, mobility and resilience in the Fante migratory fisheries of West Africa. CMI Working Paper WP 2001:2. Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway.
Documents and Reports
www.cmi.no
Small-scale fisheries Ghana
This paper examines the crucial role that social and political institutions in a local community, Moree, and its migration network within and beyond Ghana (where it is often connected economically and institutionally to a wider Ghanaian migrant community) play in fishermen and traders’ ability to pursue migration as a strategy. It is argued that the outcome of a spatially extensive but institutionally efficient migratory production system such as the Fante fisheries, is an extremely flexible utilization of resources, which is well adapted to the West African biological, economic and political environment. Furthermore, it is suggested that because of this flexibility, Ghanian canoe fisheries is a particularly resilient system which explains its extraordinary ability to adapt to and absorb biological resource fluctuations, population increase, and economic and political shocks in the region.
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Migration,Fisheries Management,resilience,Canoe
4
No
32
Schärer, René and Michelle T Schärer. Artisanal small scale fishery and community based fisheries management by “Jangadeiros” in Northeastern Brazil. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 2006.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Brazil
Prainha do Canto Verde (PCV) is a small village located in the northeastern part of Brazil in the Federal state of Ceará at 126 km from the capital city Fortaleza. Before 1990 fisher families of the village were almost totally dependent on income from fisheries. Today, fishing and small commerce account for 50 % of local income, the rest is more diversified than in the past because of local development projects such as the community based Tourism Project. Despite the lack of significant government support for the changes in the past 10 years the quality of life of fishers and their families has improved a great deal. Their understanding and perception of ecological processes, fishery dynamics, responsible fishery practices and sustainable principles have led to a better awareness of the “jangadeiros” role in the future of Northeastern Brazilian fisheries. It was found that despite poor education, fishers understand concepts such as overfishing and sustainable development and share research work with fisheries scientists, that they participate voluntarily in fisheries management and contribute financially to carry out enforcement activities. With continuous education programs and incentives other communities will get on the bandwagon and will be reliable partners for the conservation of marine resources in the coastal region which they know like their backyard.
Latin America
Fisheries Management,Artisanal Fisheries,Small Scale Fisheries
4
No
33
Johnson, Derek Stephen. Category, narrative, and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy, Volume 30, Issue 6, November 2006, Pages 747–756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2006.01.002
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X06000030
Small-scale fisheries World
Since the 1970s, small-scale fisheries have had an important place in fisheries social science and in fisheries management. While there has been substantial discussion of what constitutes the category of small-scale fisheries, its considerable ambiguity is nevertheless often passed over. This paper argues that while the category of scale fisheries can be best understood in terms of scale, the underlying reason for the power of the category lies in the values of social justice and ecological sustainability that it has come to represent in response to dominant high modern narratives of change. Fisheries governance may better be served by prioritising these values rather than by making a fetish out of small-scale fisheries.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Governance,Sustainable Fisheries,social justice
4
No
34
Small-scale fisheries in the Bay of Bengal. A Signar Bengtson sketchbook. BoBP, 1987
books
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
A collection of sketches of boats belonging to small scale fishers
Asia
Fishing Boats,Small Scale Fisheries
2
No
35
Couper, A. “Islanders at Sea: Change and the Maritime Economies of the Pacific” In The Pacific in Transition, ed. Harold Brookfield, 229-47. London: Arnold, 1973.
books
Small-scale fisheries South Pacific Islands
Pacific Islanders had evolved great ability to move about freely within their island strewn ocean. There was a complex spatial component in the economies of the pre-colonial Pacific, demanding considerable planning, extensive geographical knowledge and a relatively high degree of technological skill. These attributes of island culture should have been a basis for successful participation in the maritime trade which arose from the introduced commercial economy. But this happened only partially, and with a record of failures that far outran the successes, Islanders who were demonstrably able to marshal and distribute resources over large areas in the indigenous economy have often failed in their efforts to participate in modern trading systems and in the operation of commercial fisheries. The reasons of this failure have not been adequately examined and this essay is an attempt to offer some explanations.
Oceania
Small Scale Fisheries,Trade,Culture,Indigenous Communities,Indigenous Knowledge
4
No
36
BoBP. Role of Women in Small-Scale fisheries of the Bay of Bengal. BOBP/REP/4 (GCP/RAS/040/SWE), 1980
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
The need to integrate women into rural development activity has recently received more and more attention in countries bordering the Bay of Bengal. National machinery has been developed for the purpose in a few countries. But actual policy implementation has been dogged by deep-rooted social and cultural attitudes, by illiteracy, by lack of opportunities for study and jobs. Result: rural women continue to be a disadvantaged group as compared to men. Their economic worth has gone unrecognized. Measures to better their lot are far too few. At the meeting on the training of women extension workers, participants felt that the past neglect of women in the matter of jobs, education and access to rural services should be righted. As for fishing activities, women are well known to play a substantial role in a wide variety of activities in the Bay of Bengal region. Yet specific data is lacking. There are hardly any technical support schemes to benefit women in small-scale fisheries. Women fisheries officers are few in number and none of them performs functions specifically related to women in fishing communities. There is potential for better participation by women in every aspect of aquaculture. Since the 1970s, small-scale fisheries have had an important place in fisheries social science and in fisheries management. While there has been substantial discussion of what constitutes the category of small-scale fisheries, its considerable ambiguity is nevertheless often passed over. This paper argues that while the category of scale fisheries can be best understood in terms of scale, the underlying reason for the power of the category lies in the values of social justice and ecological sustainability that it has come to represent in response to dominant high modern narratives of change. Fisheries governance may better be served by prioritising these values rather than by making a fetish out of small-scale fisheries. Family incomes can be increased by this activity; it has the great advantage of not requiring prolonged absence from household work; it can be combined with other occupations like poultry farming, duck and pig rearing.
Asia
Women,Small Scale Fisheries,Gender,social justice,Governance,Livelihood,diversification
4
No
37
ASED, Thailand. Worsening of the Poor: A Case of Small-scale Fisherfolks. ASED 2000
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Thailand
This paper gives an idea about the scenario at Thailand, with regard to over fishing, economic and social impacts on the small scale fishermen, and the existing situation in Thailand. The paper concludes that no one seems to care about how much the government’s commercial fishing policy has cost the small fisherfolks’ long-term well-being and the country’s future food security. With the existing state’s fisheries policy, small-scale fisherfolks will be further impoverished and excluded from their sustainable way of fishing which contributes to conservation of marine resources in the long run.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Poverty,Policy,Commercial Fishing
3
No
38
Yahaya, Jahara. The Role, Status and Income-Earning Activities of Women in Small-Scale Fisheries, Peninsular Malaysia. MAL/86/005 Technical Report 6. FAO & UNDP.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Malaysia
This study aims at examining the role and status of women in the rural sector of Malaysia from the perspective of their economic contribution and participation. In view of recent interest and concern to fully utilize the economic potentials of women and to integrate them into development role, this study also hopes to explore the main avenues of gainful employment for the rural women. The focus of this study is on women in the fisheries sector, especially those in the small-scale fishing communities. To the extent that this study is not based on micro-level studies or formal surveys, the views and opinions expressed here are therefore general in nature. Be that as it may, given the financial and time constraints of this study and in the absence of documented or published works in this area, the general picture presented here is no less valid than quantifiable data generated by micro-studies and formal surveys.
Asia
Women,Small Scale Fisheries,Economy,Employment
3
No
39
Reeves, Peter, Bob Pokrant and John McGuire. The right to the sea: the struggle of artisanal fishers in Kerala since 1980. South Asia Research Unit, School of Social Sciences and Asian Languages, Curtin University of Technology, Peasant Symposium Draft copy, May 1997.
books
http://www.virginia.edu/soasia/symsem/kisan/papers/kerala.html#N_1
Small-scale fisheries India
This paper deals with one such group of peasants- the artisanal fishers of Kerala who, in the late 20th century, have had to struggle against the effects of processes of technological change and economic 'reform' which have severely disadvantaged and increasingly marginalised them so that there have been at times fears that they would have the very basis of their work and existence taken from them. The paper concludes that Fishers as a group have traditionally had little by way of political organisation. This is in part because fishers are scattered along the coast - Kerala has 250 or more fishing villages along its 590 km coastline. In part also it is because the nature of their occupation takes them out to sea in small groups - or even individually - most days of the year so that socialisation has been difficult. What this Kerala (and NFF) story tells therefore is a story of 25 to 30 years of unprecedented organisation among fishers as a result of their efforts to overcome their disadvantages and as a result of support from groups such as the clergy. That support has not been without its problems because it has, at times, tied the fishers' movements into the broader agenda of the Church and its allies - although the radicalisation of elements of the clergy have negated that effect to a considerable extent.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Artisanal Fisheries,Organizations,Organisations,Politics
3
No
40
Kittitornkool, J. Women in Southern Thailand Small-scale fishing villages: Amidst Surging waves. Workshop on Gender Relations in fisheries organized by ICSF-WIF, Dakar, Senegal, 1996.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Thailand
This overview of the roles of women in southern Thai small-scale fshing villages is a conclusion of the Support Network for Women in Fisheries (SNWIF) project. This paper presents the primary state of knowledge of the roles of women in southern Thai small-scale fishing villages, an overlooked issue in Thai society. Its ultimate goals are a)to provide basic information to interested people in order to b)promote women’s roles in small-scale fishing community organizations and c) promote sustainability of the organizations.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Women
3
No
41
Ben-Yami, Menakhem. Risks and dangers in small-scale fisheries: An overview. Fisheries Development and Management Adviser, Kiryat Tiv’, Israel, International Labour Office, Geneva, August 2000
books
http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/2000/100B09_208_engl.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
This publication is part of the research studies undertaken by the Sectoral Activities Programme of the ILO. The working paper focuses on the risks and dangers in small-scale and artisanal fisheries. It reviews working conditions, typical risks and dangers, safety approaches in developed and developing countries, accidents associated with the marine environment, navigation and fishing operations, problems associated with boat design and construction as well as other risks and dangers. The influence of fishery management measures and economic factors, wars, pirates and other hostile acts are addressed. The author makes an evaluation of these issues and recommendations for action in several areas. The study is a contribution to safety and health in small-scale and artisanal fishing and a follow-up to the Conclusions adopted by the Tripartite Meeting on Safety and Health in the Fishing Industry, held in Geneva, Switzerland from 13 to 17 December 1999.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,risk,Safety at Sea,Safety at Work
5
No
42
Neiland, A.E. and C. Bene (Eds.) Poverty and Small-scale Fisheries in West Africa. Published by Food and Agriculture Organization and Kluwer Academic, 2004.
books
Small-scale fisheries Africa
This book is one of the first attempts to examine the issue of poverty in small-scale fisheries from a multi-disciplinary perspective. It represents a state-of-the-art collation and synthesis of the experience of nineteen international experts in fisheries management, planning, economics and other social-sciences, including several senior officers from the Department of Fisheries of the UN-FAO. The book offers a new perspective on the problem of poverty in small-scale fisheries, introducing innovative concepts and ideas and drawing upon recent knowledge generated by in-depth empirical case studies and makes explicit connections with the Sustainable Livelihood Approach and the CCRF. The book also represents a key source of up-to-date information and reference material for anyone working in the fields of poverty and fisheries management in Developing Countries.
Africa
West Africa,Small Scale Fisheries
5
No
43
Ruddle, K., 1987 Administration and conflict management in Japanese coastal fisheries. FAO Fish. Tech.Pap., (273) : 93 p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/T0510E/T0510E00.HTM
Small-scale fisheries Japan
Japanese coastal fishermen have legally-guaranteed equitable access to and “ownership” of the living aquatic resources of coastal waters, through an elaborate fisheries rights system. In Japan no conceptual distinction exists between land holdings and land tenure and sea holdings, or sea tenure, and fisheries enjoy a legal status equal to that of land ownership. Sea tenure in Japanese coastal fisheries is a complex subject that is little known in the West. It involves time-honoured customary procedures for management and conflict resolution which have been incorporated into modern legislation. The Introduction reviews selected aspects of the general behavioural context within which the administration of Japanese fisheries and the resolution of conflicts should be viewed. Since the degree of continuity with traditional management practises is an outstanding characteristic, Chapter 1 describes and provides examples of the historical antecedents of the present situation. Present day formal administration is described in Chapter 2. Systems of coastal sea tenure reflect an intimate interplay of formal government regulations and informal customary elements. The latter are commonly of greater day-to-day importance than the former. In Chapters 3 and 4 this is examined through the problems of conflict management and resolution, proceeding from the personal and small-scale level to the impersonal prefectural and national levels. In Japan the most frequent, effective and culturally legitimate methods employed to manage and resolve conflict are informal and personal. These are operationalized via small-group discussion, verbal communication and the use of gobetweens. Such mechanisms, which ensure that a conflict remains localized and centred directly on the contending parties, are employed not only to manage conflicts between fishermen but also in highly formal situations such as arise in the judicial process. Failure to adhere to such a process invariably means that conflict becomes entrenched and impossible to solve.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Conflict Management,Tenure and Use
4
No
44
Poggie, J.J. and R.B. Pollnac (Eds.). Small-scale fishery development: socio-cultural perspectives. ICMRD. International Center for Marine Resource Development. The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 1991.
books
Small-scale fisheries World
The focus of this book is on social and cultural factors in small-scale fisheries development. An important concept underlying many investigations n fisheries social science is the concept of cultural adaptation which refers to both the process and the results of the process of a people’s cultural adaptation to their total environment. There is also the assumption that culture is made up of a number of components which in conjunction with the physical and social environments, make up a human cultural-ecological system. By understanding the process and results of the process of cultural adaptation in specific populations, social-scientists are better able to make recommendations regarding plans to change cultural systems. Because plans for development, management and change if implemented can have both desired and undesired consequences n existing cultural systems, prior knowledge of how a particular target population functions is most useful.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Culture,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
45
Campbell, J and P. Townsley. Participatory and integrated policy: A framework for small-scale fisheries. Integrated Marine Management Ltd., April 1996
books
Small-scale fisheries World
The Participatory and Integrated Policy (PIP) is a structured approach to research, dialogue, decision-making, institutional reform and development-resource allocation, which promotes greater involvement of all stakeholders in the policy process and harmonizes their conflicting objectives, strategies and capacities. This document explains the PIP process. It starts by discussing the policy process as it currently operates. It then discusses the importance of small-scale fisheries and the consequences of not addressing current policy failures. The conflicts within the policy process are then outlined and ways of reducing these conflicts through greater policy harmonization are discussed. The PIP process, and a framework to assist policy formulation, are then outlined. The last section links the PIP process to other fisheries activities through the sub-sectoral development cycle.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,participatory approach,Stakeholders,Conflicts,Policy
4
No
46
Kurien, John. Small-scale fisheries in the context of globalisation. Working Paper No. 289. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, October 1998
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
The small-scale fisheries sector is the oldest and most important part of the marine fisheries economy of the world. Being a relative term, small-scale operations exist in most maritime nations. This is particularly true of the developing maritime countries where the small-scale sector normally accounts for the largest employment and a significant share of the fishery output. The future of the fisheries sectors in these countries will depend significantly on the manner in which their small-scale fisheries fare in the coming decades. One important factor determining this future is the nature and the impact which the recent new phase of globalisation of the world economy will have on this evolution. Taking a perspective from the developing Asian context, this paper first attempts to characterise the small-scale sector; provide an explanation for its continued resilience; examines some dimensions of the impact of the new globalization on the sector and provides a framework for suggesting some institutional arrangements and programmes of action to ensure its secure future.
Asia,General
Small Scale Fisheries,Globalisation,Globalization,Employment,resilience,Institutions
4
No
47
Platteau, J-P. The Penetration of Captialism into Small-scale Third World Fisheries: An Investigation of Historical Processes and Organizational Forms. Facultes Notre-Dame de la Paix. Rempart de la Vierge, 8. B-5000 NAMUR, Belgium. March 1998
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
The present paper pursues several objectives: to understand the concrete processes and modalities of capitalist penetration into the Third-World fisheries; to assess the comparative role and strategies of the State and private initiative with regard to the development of this sector; to highlight and explain the position occupied agents of the small scale sector in this expansionary move; and to identify the main factors determining the choice of organisational forms. The perspective of this paper is historical-theoretical and the guiding theoretical principles are drawn from this branch of economics increasingly known as the “New Institutional Economics”
General
Developing Countries,Organisations,History
4
No
48
Amarasinghe, O. Modernisation and Change in marine small-scale fisheries of Southern Sri Lanka. ISBN 955-97552-1-8
books
Small-scale fisheries Sri Lanka
This book consists of a number of papers based on field studies carried out for a period of about 15 years starting from the mid 1980s in the small-scale fisheries sector in Sri Lanka. The topics that are covered include a general description of fisheries, technological change, risks and uncertainties in fisheries and their management (fisheries insurance), market for fisheries credit, marketing and living standards of fishermen.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Technology,risk,Fisheries Management,Insurance,Markets
5
No
49
Bavinck, M. Marine resource management. Conflict and regulation in the fisheries of the Coromandel Coast, New Delhi: Sage, 2001
books
Small-scale fisheries India
Conflicts over the access to and use of natural resources have become common throughout the world. Such strife is often difficult to resolve as embraces a plethora of issues and numerous claimants. In many cases, governments are incapable of providing an effective and legitimate management framework. To understand how conflicts over natural resources develop and how they are resolved or perpetuated, the book provides a detailed case study of marine fisheries along the Coromandel coast in southern India. The fish resources of the area are contested by a sizeable artisanal fishing population as well as by a newly established community of trawler fishermen. Each has developed a different set of rules governing access to and appropriation of fish resources. The government of Tamil Nadu is the most recent entrant into the field and has endeavoured to resolve the conflict by regulating fishing rights, The end result is the existence of three legal systems. The author examines each system in detail. He also discusses patterns of conflict and accommodation, social and economic organization, and authority structures which enforce rules. The author concludes that fisheries regulation is not the exclusive responsibility of the state. Instead, he notes the existence of well-defined regulatory practices among both the artisanal and trawler fishermen.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,trawler,Conflicts,Conflict Management,Artisanal Fisheries,Marine Fisheries,Legal pluralism,Rights,Fishing Rights
5
No
50
Abraham, C.M. Fish Workers’ Movement in Kerala. Institute for Community Organization Research, Mumbai, India. 1996
books
Small-scale fisheries India
This book traces the history of the fishworker movement in Kerala. It looks at the circumstances that led to the emergence of the KSMTF, a fishworker organisation, among traditional fishworkers who had for centuries remained passive and indifferent. It also traces the life cycle or career of the KSMTF, depicting the inner dynamics including such dimensions as role of people and their contribution to leadership, organisation and functions.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Fishworker Movements,Kerala
3
No
51
Pollnac, R.B and M.T. Morrissey (Eds.) Aspects of small-scale fisheries development. International Center for Marine Resource Development. The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 1989
books
Small-scale fisheries World
Small-scale fisheries development is a complex process. It involves consideration of everything from the availability of the resource to consumer acceptance of the product. This volume reflects this complexity in that consideration is given to the areas of stick assessment, fisheries capture technology, social and cultural aspects of fishermen, fishery resource economics, marketing, food science and fisheries management. Overall the papers in the volume reflect the holistic approach taken by ICMRD toward fisheries development. The best technology is worthless without a resource to capture, fishermen who are willing and able to deploy the gear and a system to deliver and affordable and acceptable product to the consumer.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Development
4
No
52
Gillet, Pierre. Small is difficult: The pangs and success of small boat technology transfer in South India. Centre for Appropriate Technology, Nagercoil, India, 1985, reprinted 2002.
books
Small-scale fisheries India
he purpose of this report is to document the recent developments in boat-building technology which started in 1981 when the Centre for Appropriate Technology (CAT) decided to devote most of its efforts to help the Boat Building Centre (BBC) at Muttom venture into new technologies and answer the increasing demand of fishermen for new craft. This report attempts to give a detailed and live account of the pains, pangs and success of the process of technology transfer relating to small plywood boats used for marine fishing.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Fishing Boats,History
4
No
53
Le Sann, Alain. A livelihood from fishing: globalization and sustainable fisheries policies. Intermediate Technology Publications, 1998.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
The global fishing crisis has been described as the world’s worse ecological disaster. Official sources describe the world’s main fishing grounds as being fished at or above their limits: 70 percent of fish stocks are regarded as fully exploited, depleted or recovering. But how many of us really understand the social and environmental impacts of the global trade in luxury fish products? What are the social and environmental implications of feeding one third of the world’s fish catch to cattle, pigs, poultry and other fish? This book is the result of reflection, meetings and discussions since 1984 when the FAO organized the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development and is also the fruit of close ties with fishworker organizations in both North and South. It contains a broad overview of fisheries and describes for the general reader the social and nutritional issues raised by the modernization of fisheries worldwide. It aims to inform all who are interested in the protection of the marine environment and the plight of workers in the fisheries sector.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Sustainable Fisheries,Livelihood,Fishworkers,Fishworkers Organisation,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
54
Nayak, N. Community and Change in Artisanal Fishing Communities. A study of socio-economic conditions of artisanal fishing communities on the south-west coast of India following motorisation of fishing crafts. Programme for Community Organisation, Trivandrum and SIFFS, Trivandrum, India, 1993.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries India
This study was carried out in 1989 to monitor the health of the small scale fisheries sector with particular reference to the effect of motorisation in Kerala, India. This report deals with the socio-economic aspects. The study reveals that the fishing sector is in a state of transition, influenced by socio-economic forces operating at the macro level. While they have created new pressures on the coastal economy for survival and further integrated it into the market economy, these forces have not led to a major transformation of it.
Asia
Socio-economic Aspects,Small Scale Fisheries,motorisation,Fishing Boats
4
No
55
Diegeus, Antonio Carlos (Ed). Tradition and social change in the coastal communities of Brazil. NUPAUB: Research Center on Human Populations and Wetlands, Sao Paulo., 1997.
books
Small-scale fisheries Brazil
This Reader is an attempt to give an overall and interdisciplinary view of the research in different fields of the social sciences undertaken by several Brazilian universities aiming to analyse the processes of social change in coastal communities, particularly those of artisanal fishermen. It is a result of papers presented at a series of national workshops called “Social Sciences and the Sea”, organized by the NUPAUB-CEMAR research center of the University of Sao Paolo, Brazil, from 1988 to 1991. The first three articles address conceptual issues concerning the definition of artisanal fishermen and their relationship to other social groups as peasants and industrial-capitalist fishermen. Their main focus is the process of social change that coastal communities have experienced in recent decades. Next set of articles aims at analysing the conflicting relationships between artisanal and commercial/industrial fishing in the Amazonian region. Another set of authors look at traditional knowledge, sea-territoriality and coastal commons. Others look at social and ecological relationships, traditional knowledge and social change.
Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,Social Issues,Artisanal Fisheries,Conflict Resolution,Social Change,Traditional Knowledge,Commons,Amazon
4
No
56
Berkes, F., R. Mahon, P. McConney, R. Pollnac and R. Pomeroy. Managing Small-scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods. International Development Research Centre, Canada, 2001.
books
Small-scale fisheries World
Human dependence on marine and coastal resources is increasing. Today, small-scale fisheries employ 50 of the world’s 51 million fishers, practically all of whom are from developing countries. And together, they produce more than half of the world’s annual marine fish catch of 98 million tonnes, supplying most of the fish consumed in the developing world. At the same time, increased fishery overexploitation and habitat degradation are threatening the Earth’s coastal and marine resources. Most small-scale fisheries have not been well managed, if they have been managed at all. Existing approaches have failed to constrain fishing capacity or to manage conflict. They have not ket pace with technology or with the driving forces of economics, population growth, demand for food, and poverty. Worldwide, the management and governance of small-scale fisheries is in urgent need of reform. Managing small-scale fisheries looks beyond the scope of conventional fishery management to alternative concepts, tools, methodologies and conservation strategies. There is, for example, broader emphasis on ecosystem management and participatory decision-making.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,participatory approach,Participatory Management,Decision Making,Ecosystem Approach,Ecosystem Based Management
4
No
57
INFOFISH, INFOPÊCHE, INFOSA, INFOPESCA. Present and future markets for fish and fish products from small-scale fisheries – case studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 1033. Rome, FAO. 2008. 87p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0230e/i0230e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries Brazil
At the twenty-sixth session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries, FAO was requested to identify how trade in fish and fish products could further benefit small-scale fisheries and generate additional income and employment within the sector. Following this request, case studies were carried out in selected Latin American, African and Asian countries to study the importance of small-scale fisheries trade and identify opportunities for better integration into regional and international fish trade. The findings and recommendations of the case studies were presented and discussed at the tenth session of the FAO Sub- Committee on Fish Trade, held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, from 30 May to 2 June 2006.
Africa,Asia,Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,Women,Trade,Markets,Fish Products
5
No
58
Béné, C.; Macfadyen, G.; Allison, E.H. Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 481. Rome, FAO. 2007. 125p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0965e/a0965e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries World
The objectives of this Technical Paper are to highlight the contribution that inland and coastal small-scale fisheries can make to poverty alleviation and food security and to make practical suggestions on ways that this contribution can be maximized. This paper is organized into three main sections. The first section discusses the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and food security, and briefly outlines how these concepts have evolved in recent years within the field of fisheries (in line with the rest of the development literature). The second section reviews the actual and potential contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. It illustrates, through use of examples, the role that small-scale fisheries can play in economic growth at the national level and poverty alleviation and rural development at the local level. The third and main section of the document discusses ways of increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security through nine main entry points. First, the paper revisits conventional fisheries policies and legislation and makes suggestions on how those can be made more pro-poor. Next, the paper emphasizes the importance of capacity building and highlights how cross-sectoral interventions can greatly improve the livelihoods of fish-dependent communities. The paper then proposes a series of broad pro-poor or pro-small-scale fisheries principles, before discussing in greater detail three of the main management instruments adopted in fisheries: (i) property right approaches; (ii) co-management; and (iii) protected areas. The next two sub-sections discuss markets and how to make them work for the poor, and the important issue of pro-poor financing systems and subsidies. The paper highlights the complexity of the issues and reflects the current debate on the ambiguous impacts of markets and trade on poverty alleviation. The last sub-section examines the information, research agenda and communication strategies that are needed to complement or support other interventions and to ensure the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Property rights,Co-management,Protected Areas,Poverty,Vulnerability,Food Security,Fisheries Policy,Markets
5
No
59
FAO. 2005. Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security . FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 10. Rome, FAO. 79 pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0237e/a0237e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries World
The objectives of these Technical Guidelines are to provide a focus on small-scale fisheries and their current and potential role in contributing to poverty alleviation and food security by expanding on the guidance on small-scale fisheries offered by the Code. The Guidelines are complementary to existing Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,guidelines,Poverty,Food Security,Women
5
No
60
Stamatopoulos, C. Sample-based fishery surveys: A technical handbook. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 425. Rome, FAO. 2002. 132p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2790e/y2790e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries World
The purpose of this handbook is to summarize experience gained over recent years in fishery statistical development by the Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit (FIDI) of FAO, and provide planners and users of fishery surveys with simple and step-by-step guidance for developing and implementing cost-effective and sustainable fishery surveys. The methodological and operational concepts discussed here apply equally to both marine and inland capture fisheries and are presented in a manner that is generic enough to make them adaptable to most commonly used data collection systems. Statistical aspects are presented in a descriptive rather than theoretical manner. Emphasis is placed on the understanding and interpretation of the statistics and related indicators collected, rather than on the computations producing them. Readers interested in a more in-depth discussion on statistical and computing approaches may make use of the list of references that is given at the end of the handbook
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Surveys,Statistics,Data
4
No
61
FAO. 2007. Gender policies for responsible fisheries – Policies to support gender equity and livelihoods in small-scale fisheries . New Directions in Fisheries – A Series of Policy Briefs on Development Issues, No. 06. Rome. 8 pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.sflp.org/briefs/eng/policybriefs.html
Small-scale fisheries World
The aim of this policy brief is to: Encourage policy-makers to address gender issues in fisheries; Present experiences dealing with gender issues in fisheries to guide the development of gender policies; Highlight strategies to improve the delivery of gender policies in small-scale and industrial fisheries and aquaculture
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Policy,Gender,Aquaculture
4
No
62
Townsend, R.; Shotton, R.; Uchida, H. (eds). Case studies in fisheries self-governance. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 504. Rome, FAO. 2008. 451p.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Canada
This FAO Fisheries Technical Paper documents 32 case studies and four syntheses (Canada, Japan, New Zealand and the United States of America) on the role of industry in the governance and management of fisheries. The studies are drawn from ongoing practice in Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia. The types of fisheries cover those for crustaceans, fish, molluscs and echinoderms. In general the scale of the fisheries tends to be small, which has been one of the reasons attributed to their success. In all but one case it is clear that well-defined fishery rights have contributed to the success of the programmes though the initiative for development and adoption of the programmes covers a range of institutional causes. The case studies are intended to inform and provide potential models that may be used in other fisheries.
Asia,Australia/Oceania,Europe,N. America
Small Scale Fisheries,Governance,Fisheries Management
4
No
63
Danielsson, Per, Mamanding Kuyateh, R. Ravikumar, Andreas Westerberg and Yugraj Yadava. Safety For Fishermen: The Way Forward (GCP/GLO/200/MUL). FIELD DOCUMENT No. 10. FAO. 2010. 82p
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
The objective of this report is to disseminate the knowledge gained from the project, “Safety at sea for small-scale fisheries in developing countries” (GCP/GLO/200/MUL, launched in December 2006 and extend to September 2010, and to help countries towards improving safety for fishermen. The report follows the steps in the safety management cycle and addresses important topics to improve the safety for fishermen. The topics are illustrated by good examples from the project activities in West Africa and South Asia. The report will also highlight the outcomes and recommendations from the project.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Safety at Sea,Developing Countries
4
No
64
COFI, 2005. Supporting Small-Scale Fisheries Through an Enabling Environment. Committee on fisheries, Twenty-sixth session, Rome, Italy, 7-11 March 2005
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
This paper explores the importance of the context in which small-scale fisheries operate, and argues that only through the creation of an enabling environment can these fisheries fulfil their potential to contribute to reading the important goals of poverty alleviation and food security as stipulated in the World Food Summit and the Millennium Declaration. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to facilitate small-scale fisheries operations, including initiatives aimed at making changes to fisheries policy and legislation, improving non-fisheries policy and legislative environment, tailoring fisheries management regimes, facilitating financial arrangements, improving information, developing human capacity and making markets work for small-scale fishers.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Policy,Legislation,Markets,Fisheries Management
4
No
65
COFI, 2007. Social Issues In Small-Scale Fisheries. Committee on fisheries, Twenty-seventh session, Rome, Italy, 5-9 March 2007.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
This paper argues that more attention should be given to social issues in smallscale fisheries. Fishing communities often lack awareness, opportunity and cohesive social institutions to be able to self-organise, articulate their demands, negotiate with government agencies and actively participate in the planning of their own future. Poverty, vulnerability and low levels of social development compromise the ability of small-scale fishers to adopt responsible fishing practices and participate in co-management and community-based fisheries management regimes.
Social development issues can be addressed through various sectoral policies relating to education, health, social insurance and others. A human rights perspective provides an overarching approach to addressing social development which has been widely adopted in the UN system. The Committee is invited to provide guidance on the kind of policies and measures that could be taken by countries and development agencies including FAO in support of social development of small-scale fisheries.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Social Issues,Human Rights,Poverty,Social Development,Insurance
4
No
66
WTO, 2005. Definitions Related to Artisanal, Small-Scale and Subsistence Fishing. Note by the Secretariat. TN/RL/W/197. 24 November 2005
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
At its September 2005 formal meeting, the Negotiating Group on Rules requested the
Secretariat to research and compile information on definitions currently in use for the terms "artisanal" fishing and fisheries, "small-scale" fishing and fisheries, and "subsistence" fishing and fisheries. This document sets forth the results of this research.
General
subsidies,Small Scale Fisheries,Artisanal Fisheries,definitions,Subsistence Fisheries
5
No
67
WorldFish Center. 2008. About more than just the size of the boat. Flyer about the Big Numbers Project.
Documents and Reports
http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resource_centre/WF_1079.pdf
Small-scale fisheries World
Small-scale fisheries are hard to measure, so their importance to food security and livelihoods is often underestimated; the Big Numbers Project works to fill the information gap. The Big Numbers Project is a joint activity of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, World Bank and the WorldFish Center in collaboration with national partners. It is funded through PROFISH, the World Bank’s global program on sustainable fishing. It aims to fill the information gap by providing disaggregated data on capture fisheries. The intention is to support the establishment of procedures that allow for the regular analyses of fisheries’ status and trends. These analyses will inform policy formulation and support the provision of management advice within countries and globally.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Data,Sustainable Fisheries
4
No
68
Perez, M.L., M.D. Pido, L.R. Garces and N.D. Salayo, 2010. Towards Sustainable Development of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Philippines: Experiences and Lessons Learned from Eight Regional Sites. WorldFish Penang, Malaysia. Lessons Learned Brief 2012-10.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Philippines
The focus of this paper is on the governance of small-scale or municipal fisheries in the Philippines in light of the critical role they play in the livelihoods of coastal communities and in the nation as a whole. Annually, some 1.3 million metric tons of fish are harvested from the country’s 17,460 km coastline and 496,000 ha of inland water bodies. This sub-sector contributes significantly to the Philippine economy, supplies the bulk of the dietary fish requirement for over 90 million Filipinos who consume around 38 kg/capita/year, and provides direct employment to 1.4 million fishers. Despite eight national fisheries plans from 1972 to 2010, four major externally funded fisheries programs and thousands of local initiatives, the failures and inadequacies in governance of small-scale fisheries are conspicuous. They are made evident by depleted fishery resources, degraded fish habitats, intensified resource use competition and conflict, post-harvest losses, limited institutional capabilities, inadequate and inconsistent fisheries policies, and weak institutional partnerships.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Governance,Livelihood,Institutions
4
No
69
Ruddle, Kenneth and Anthony Davis. Human rights and neo-liberalism in small-scale fisheries: Conjoined priorities and processes. Marine Policy 39 (2013) 87–93
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
Recent advocacy of human rights approaches (HRA) for the governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) in developing countries overlooks evidence that HRA facilitates a neo-liberal agenda. Further, this advocacy is seemingly uninformed by serious consideration of the extensive human rights literature. As a result, the essential relationship of human rights to neo-liberal philosophy and processes, as well as nation/state icons and institutional practices, remains hidden. Neither is it demonstrated that ‘‘development’’ was redefined within the neo-liberal context of the property-holding individual functioning efficiently within a market-imposed discipline, nor that this has been protected since the 1980s by having co-opted HRA. Paradoxically, the likely result of an HRA as promoted is a disruption of the very collective community cultural, economic and social values that provide the realistic ethical, moral and practical basis for implementing an effective and meaningful HRA. This essay examines and demonstrates how the HRA advances the cause of neo-liberal penetration into communities within the context of Western development practice and philosophy, its basis in neo-classical economics, and its congruence with neo-liberalism. The role of collective communal values is examined as an alternative for securing human rights.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Human Rights,Governance,Development,Culture
5
No
70
Capistrano, Robert Charles G. and Anthony T. Charles. Indigenous rights and coastal fisheries: A framework of livelihoods, rights and equity. Ocean & Coastal Management 69 (2012) 200-209
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Canada
The involvement of indigenous peoples in fisheries, and in the management of those fisheries, varies widely around the world, but invariably involves many complex interactions. This paper assesses these interactions using a three-pronged conceptual framework of livelihoods, equity and rights (resource access and management rights, as well as indigenous and aboriginal rights). The framework is applied to examine the experiences of indigenous peoples in Canada and the Philippines regarding access to fishery resources, and participation in fisheries management and policy. These experiences demonstrate the importance of legally recognized rights not only as a key tool in resource management, but also in the pursuit of secure and equitable livelihoods on the part of indigenous peoples. While it is apparent that in some ways, serious mismatches exist between government policy and local livelihood needs, there are also illustrations of positive change in improving the situation of indigenous peoples.
Asia,N. America
Indigenous Communities,Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Livelihood,Equity,Policy,Access Rights
5
No
71
The World Bank/UNDP/CEC/FAO. Small-Scale fisheries Research Needs. (Francis T. Christy Jr., et al) World Bank Technical Paper Number 152, Fisheries Series.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
This Working Group Report examines the critical problems affecting small-scale fisheries research. It first deals with an outline and diagnosis of the different small-scale fishery situations. This is followed by a more detailed discussion of fisheries management and associated fisheries research needs. It concludes with an assessment of the constraints to undertaking research.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Research and Development,Fisheries Management
4
No
72
Berkes, Fikret. Alternatives to Conventional Management: Lessons from Small-Scale Fisheries. Environments Volume 31(1) 2003
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
Based on long-term research on community-based resource management, and using small-scale fisheries as an example, alternatives to conventional management may be characterized by: a shift in philosophy to embrace uncertainty and complexity; an appreciation of fisheries as social-ecological systems and more broadly as complex adaptive systems; an expansion of scope of management information to include fishers’ knowledge; formulation of management objectives that incorporate livelihood issues; and development of participatory management with community-based institutions and cross-scale governance. Such alternative management is adaptive as well as participatory in nature, as it engages the knowledge of resource users, their adaptive learning, and their institutions for self-governance. It is human-oriented but uses an ecosystem approach, effectively linking social systems with natural systems. Such management breaks out of the old tradition of management-as-control. It effectively redefines resource to mean, not commodity, but elements of an ecosystem that supports essential processes as well as human needs. It also redefines management to refer to governance, learning and adaptive management, oriented to maintaining the productive capacity and resilience of the linked social-ecological system.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Adaptive management,EbA,Ecosystem Based Management,Traditional Knowledge,Livelihood
5
No
73
Thomson, D.B. Intermediate Technology and Alternative Energy Systems for Small-Scale Fisheries. APFIC, 1980.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
Against the background of the small-scale fisheries of the Indo-Pacific region, the paper reviews the need for and relevance of an intermediate technology approach to fisheries development. This is in view of the impending energy crisis, the increasing socio-economic problems of rural fishermen, and the unemployment, pollution, waste and resource depletion resulting from some industrial fishery activities . To avoid future dependence on diminishing resources of fossil fuels, available substitute fuels from organic sources are recommended. Natural energy sources which can power vessels, fish plants, vehicles and fishfarms are discussed. Technologies which are low in capital cost and energy requirements and are appropriate to rural fishing villages, are outlined. In view of the current critical situation and the emergence of an appropriate intermediate technology, the writer examines ways in which small-scale fisheries may
benefit by adapting vessels, fishing methods, fish processing and fish farming
activities to obtain the maximum production at the minimum energy consumption
and minimum waste of raw materials, while conserving the resource and providing useful, interesting and remunerative work for fishermen and their families. Integrated village systems are proposed and the writer concludes by outlining the potential benefits of wise application of the principles to small-scale fisheries throughout the world.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Technology,alternative energy,intermediate technology
5
No
74
Charles, Anthony, Edward H. Allison, Ratana Chuenpagdee and Philile Mbatha. Well-Being and Fishery Governance. IIFET 2012 Tanzania Proceedings
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries South Africa
This paper provides summaries of presentations at a special session of IIFET 2012 that explored the potential value of a ‘wellbeing’ approach in small-scale fisheries, drawing on insights from the Governing Small-Scale Fisheries for Wellbeing and Resilience project. The research aimed to apply wellbeing concepts to both better understand fishery values and dynamics, and to improve fisheries management and governance. Wellbeing provides a framework to broaden the analysis of fisheries by addressing the three complementary elements of material, relational and subjective wellbeing, to properly consider the full range of values and objectives in fisheries, and to more comprehensively assess policy alternatives. The paper introduces the idea of wellbeing, then focuses on four themes: (1) the extent to which a wellbeing lens provides a more comprehensive way to approach concerns about poverty, livelihoods and vulnerability in small-scale fisheries; (2) how a wellbeing lens connects to a social-ecological systems perspective, and to analyses of resilience within a fisheries context; (3) how adoption of wellbeing perspectives can contribute to fishery governance thinking, and inform the implementation of fisheries management instruments, and (4) how a wellbeing lens can be applied in specific fisheries, through small-scale fishery case studies from South Africa.
Africa
well being,Small Scale Fisheries,Governance
4
No
75
Worldfish and FAO. Small‐Scale Capture Fisheries – A Global Overview with Emphasis on Developing Countries. A preliminary report of the Big Numbers Project, 2008.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
The Big Numbers Project (BNP) is a joint activity of FAO, World Bank and WorldFish Center aiming at providing disaggregated information on small and large‐scale fisheries, at the global level and by specific countries. Case studies have been carried out in a selected number of developing countries where fisheries are important and this document presents a synthesis of the results of the analyses carried out so far. Estimates of key Thomson table indicators – i.e. assessments of the shares of small and large‐scale fisheries, in marine and inland waters, in overall catches, local food fish supplies, employment and fossil fuel consumption – for developing countries constitute a main output of this initial project phase.
The main findings include:
• While there exists a large diversity in fisheries and fishery systems in the world, there
appears to be sufficient common features to allow for the use of small‐scale and
large‐scale fisheries as two main distinguishable categories in global policy discussions and country‐level monitoring efforts.
• Official fisheries data on catches and employment are not always reliable. This is
likely to be the case for all types of fisheries but it is of particular concern with regard
to small‐scale fisheries.
• Due to their informal and dispersed characteristics, catches of and employment in inland fisheries tend to be greatly underreported. Both inland and marine small‐scale fisheries in developing countries are often poorly regulated, or not regulated at all, and monitoring is weak. The prevalence of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is hence a source of misreporting, both in small and large‐scale fisheries.
• Over half of the catch in developing countries is produced by the small‐scale sector.
90‐95 percent of the small‐scale landings is destined for domestic human consumption and the sector contributes greatly to local food supplies and food security.
• The small‐scale sector employs 25‐27 million fulltime and parttime fishers in developing countries. Another 68‐70 million people are employed in post‐harvest activities and the small‐scale sector hence provides over 90 percent of all fisheries jobs. About half the total workforce are women.
• In addition to fulltime and part-time employment, the small‐scale sector – in particular in inland waters – provides a source of food and income to millions of occasional fishers and fish workers. The sector plays an important role in food security and poverty prevention, constituting a security net for poorer populations both in inland water and coastal areas.
• Many small‐scale fisheries in developing countries are vulnerable to both internal and external threats. The current volatility of fuel prices constitutes a particular concern in this respect since fuel typically constitutes a major part of overall costs in small‐scale fishing in developing countries.
Africa,Asia,Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,Data,Database,Catch,Statistics,Employment
5
No
76
The World Bank, FAO and Worldfish. The Hidden Harvests: the global contribution of capture fisheries. Conference Edition, June 2010
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
The central aim of the study is to create a greater awareness of the socioeconomic contribution of fisheries to inform policy formulation both in the fisheries sector and in the broader political economy linked to the sector. The economic and social contribution of fishing and the economic activities founded on fishing are frequently undervalued. In particular, the contribution of small-scale fisheries to livelihoods, to food security and food supply is often poorly recognized, partly because of weaknesses in compiling and disseminating knowledge on fisheries. Because of these knowledge gaps, policymakers have often neglected comprehensive efforts to manage this complex and politically sensitive sector. The study shows that official records substantially underestimate production, employment and fish consumption and economic activity associated with fisheries. The reasons include reduced investment in knowledge and statistical systems, a failure to capture diverse, dispersed or seasonal activities in standardized data collection schemes, fragmentation of data sources and sets, and weak human capacity in developing countries. The solutions begin with making the knowledge systems more relevant to decision making, thereby justifying investment in monitoring key indicators which are directly relevant to economic productivity of the fisheries, to their role in poverty reduction, in economic growth, or in food security.
Africa,Asia
Lake Fisheries,Lake Victoria,Small Scale Fisheries,Capture Fisheries,Data,Statistics,Economy,Socio-economic Aspects
5
No
77
Jentoft, Svein and Eide, Arne (Eds.), Poverty Mosaics: Realities and Prospects in Small-Scale Fisheries 2011, XXXI, 510p. 77 illus., 54 illus. in color.
books
Small-scale fisheries World
Small-scale fisheries are a major source of food and employment around the world. Yet, many small-scale fishers work in conditions that are neither safe nor secure. Millions of them are poor, and often they are socially and politically marginalized. Macro-economic and institutional mechanisms are essential to address these poverty and vulnerability problems; however, interventions at the local community level are also necessary. This requires deep understanding of what poverty means to the fishers, their families and communities; how they cope with it; and the challenges they face to increase resiliency and improve their lives for the better.
This book provides a global perspective, situating small-scale fisheries within the broad academic discourse on poverty, fisheries management and development. In-depth case studies from fifteen countries in Latin America, Europe, South and Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, demonstrate the enormously complex ecological, economic, social, cultural and political contexts of this sector. Conclusions for policy-making, formulated as a joint statement by the authors, argue that fisheries development, poverty alleviation, and resource management must be integrated within a comprehensive governance approach that also looks beyond fisheries.
Latin America,Europe,Asia,Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Poverty,Fisheries Management,Development
5
No
78
Ratner, B.D., E.J.V. Oh and R.S. Pomeroy. Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Management. 2012 Sep 30;107:131-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.014.
Documents and Reports
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609805
Small-scale fisheries Philippines
Early efforts to apply the concept of fisheries co-management in Southeast Asia focused primarily on building the effectiveness of local management institutions and advocating the merits of the approach so that it would be applied in new sites, while gradually learning and adapting to a range of obstacles in practice. Today, with co-management widely embraced by the research community and adopted as policy by an increasing number of governments, a second-generation perspective has emerged. This perspective is distinguished by efforts to navigate and influence change in the broader institutional and governance context: (a) a more sophisticated appreciation of politics, power relations, and the role of the state, (b) efforts to manage resource competition beyond the fisheries sector, (c) building institutions for adaptation and learning, and (d) recognizing divergent values and goals influencing fisheries management. This paper traces the evolution of this second-generation perspective, noting how it has built on learning from early practice and how it has been cross-fertilized by theoretical innovations in related fields, notably resilience thinking and political ecology. We illustrate this evolution through analysis of experience in the Philippines, with a relatively long experience of learning and adaptation in fisheries co-management practice, and Vietnam, where fisheries co-management policies have been embraced more recently. Characterizing the second-generation perspective helps identify points of convergence in the research and policy community about what needs attention, providing a basis for more systematic cross-country and cross-regional learning.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Co-management,Politics,Policy,Institutions
4
No
79
Ahmed, N., Rahman, S., Bunting, S. W. and Brugere, C. (2013), Socio-economic and ecological challenges of small-scale fishing and strategies for its sustainable management: A case study of the Old Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 34: 86–102. doi: 10.1111/sjtg.12015
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
Socio-economic and ecological challenges faced by the small-scale fishers dependent on the Old Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh are assessed using a combination of questionnaire survey, co-monitoring of fish catch, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Results reveal that the fishers are involved in professional, seasonal or subsistence fishing. Fish catches from the river have declined significantly because of overfishing, destructive use of fishing gear, water pollution, siltation, rapid urbanization and human encroachment, thereby threatening the health of the river ecosystem as well as the future of small-scale fishing. We evaluate various social, economic and ecological challenges faced by the fisher communities. We propose a conceptual framework that recognizes linkages among social, economic and ecological aspects in devising a sustainable river fisheries management system. We recommend effective legal enforcement of policies and regulations, strong institutional collaboration and active fisher community participation in management to ensure sustainable use of the resource base.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Ecology,Socio-economic Aspects,Riverine fisheries,Legal Issues,Institutions
4
No
80
FAO. Report of the Workshop on International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries. Rome, Italy, 7–10 February 2012. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 1004. Rome, FAO. 2012. 44pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2719e/i2719e00.htm
Small-scale fisheries World
In June 2011, the twenty-ninth Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) recommended the development of international guidelines for small-scale fisheries ("SSF Guidelines"). As part of its strategic development process, the FAO Secretariat is engaging in an extensive consultative process with governments, regional organizations, civil society organizations, and small-scale fishers, fish workers and their communities. In this context, a consultative workshop on International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries was convened in Rome, Italy, on 7–10 February 2012. The workshop brought together about 30 experts from government, regional organizations, civil society and academia to further discuss the structure, overall considerations and thematic coverage of the Guidelines and to consolidate ideas put forth in the regional and national consultations. Advice was given concerning next steps and additional activities in the guidelines development process. The workshop confirmed the importance of small-scale fisheries as a contributor to poverty alleviation, food and nutrition security, and economic development. The SSF Guidelines should complement the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) and draw on its principles and approaches and the discussions confirmed that the guiding principles of the SSF Guidelines should include good governance and human rights. Additional principles, approaches and frameworks to be referred to include equity, economic viability, ecosystem based, holistic and integrated approaches. Participants encouraged continued and strengthened collaboration and partnerships, both with regard to the development of the SSF Guidelines as well as for their implementation. The workshop noted the need to build bridges between different stakeholder visions – within the fisheries sector as well as outside – to ensure coherence. A new vision on how to ensure access for small-scale fisheries communities and giving them resource stewardship responsibilities may be needed, reflecting the need for combining livelihood security and environmental sustainability as one cannot be achieved without the other. Participants stressed that the small-scale fisheries sector should not be portrayed as one in need of aid and as being development dependent, but as a real contributor to socio-economic development and livelihood security. The SSF Guidelines should be a set of ideals to empower the sector and it will be important to create awareness of the potential of small-scale fisheries – if supported and not marginalized – and to build political will at all levels. The workshop agreed that the SSF Guidelines can become a powerful tool in achieving sustainable governance and development of the sector. Support to their implementation will be important, requiring concerted efforts and organizational development and strengthening of capacities at all levels.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,CCRF,guidelines
5
No
81
Armitage, D and M. Marschke. Assessing the future of small-scale fishery systems in coastal Vietnam and the implications for policy. Environmental Science & Policy Volume 27, March 2013, Pages 184–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.12.015,
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Vietnam
Our aim in this paper is to examine the future for small-scale fishers and fish producers in the rapidly changing Tam Giang Lagoon in central Vietnam. The analysis shows: (1) the multi-dimensional and linked social, ecological and economic challenges confronting lagoon resource users and government officials, including the possibility that important features of the ecological system have been significantly altered; and (2) the spatial and temporal variation in the lived experience and conditions facing lagoon resource users even in the context of one relatively-bounded physical system. In this context, policy and management interventions need to better reflect social and ecological variability, incorporate local perspectives about the future of small-scale fishing and small producer aquaculture, and acknowledge how individuals simultaneously produce, resist and adapt to change. Key policy responses include the adoption of an integrated fishery (fishing and aquaculture) and coastal systems perspective, clarifying security of access rights to aquatic resources, and building institutional conditions for greater collaboration and learning among resource users and decision makers.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Aquaculture,Co-management,Fisheries,Institutions,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
82
Guyadera, O., , P. Berthoub, C. Koutsikopoulosc, F. Alband, S. Demanècheb, M.B. Gaspare, R. Eschbaumf, E. Fahyg, O. Tullyh, L. Reynali, O. Curtild, K. Frangoudesd and F. Maynoui. Small scale fisheries in Europe: A comparative analysis based on a selection of case studies. Fisheries Research, Volume 140, February 2013, Pages 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.11.008
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries European Union
Small-scale fisheries have traditionally received less research effort than large-scale fisheries and are generally under-studied in Europe. In spite of their comparatively low volume of catches and economic importance, small-scale fisheries are socially important and an integral part of the European coastal zone. Considering the high heterogeneity of situations and the paucity of quantitative data, we used an analytical methodology based on the comparative method. We carried out an analysis of small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in Europe based on a selection of nine case studies. Our objective was to obtain a comprehensive description of small-scale fleets covering different areas/fisheries/species, encompassing the diversity and specific conditions under which SSFs operate, in order to demonstrate the ecological and social sustainability of this often overlooked fisheries segment. A common approach formulated so that the case studies could be compared with the case histories of other competing users, required that for each set of criteria – technical, biological, socio-economic, and institutional – a set of relevant items and indicators was established. An analysis of characteristics common to the selected case studies is conducted and an attempt made to extend our comparisons to the whole of the European Union. Our results show that (as compared with large-scale fleets, their main competitor) small-scale fleets: (i) are composed of smaller vessels and, consequently, travel lower distances to fishing grounds, and are more reliant on coastal areas; (ii) have smaller crews (although the global employment figure is similar to that of large-scale fleets in Europe); (iii) use mostly, but not exclusively, passive gears; (iv) use multi-purpose fishing approaches, and can change the fish species they target during the year; (v) have lower extraction rates; (vi) have lower total capital investments (including fishing rights), turnover and costs; and (vii) have lower fuel consumption, making them less sensitive to changing oil prices. Dependence on subsidies is lower (viii). Involvement in fisheries management is variable, conservation and access regulation measures are largely local in origin. For the selected case studies, the most significant competitors are large-scale fleets, and recreational fisheries, but other sources of interaction (water quality, invasive species, etc.) cannot be ignored.
Europe
Small Scale Fisheries,Policy,Fishing Rights
4
No
83
Maynoua, Francesc, Beatriz Morales-Ninb, Miguel Cabanellas-Reboredob, Miquel Palmerb, Eugenio Garcíab and Antonio María Grauc. Small-scale fishery in the Balearic Islands (W Mediterranean): A socio-economic approach. Fisheries Research Volume 139, March 2013, Pages 11–17
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Spain
Small-scale fisheries in Europe face an uncertain situation from different pressures that undermine its social and economic viability in the near future. We investigate the issue of sustainability and options for future development of small-scale fisheries by means of a case study in Majorca (Balearic Islands; W Mediterranean). We analysed the socio-economic status of this small-scale fishery by means of economic indicators derived from data obtained through questionnaires. Our results show that the economic profitability of this activity is low and that, under the current economic situation small-scale, fishing has limited attractiveness, a situation similar to other Mediterranean small-scale fisheries. However, as a producer of high-quality fresh fish fetching comparatively high prices, small-scale fishing should have a viable future if the factors identified as responsible for the low economic viability could be redressed (such as excessive fishing pressure on the resource because it is shared with other commercial or recreational fishers; inadequate pricing system). Reducing the conflicts with other users of the coastal zone, by appropriate spatial zonation (combined with the already existing network of MPAs), is a measure that receives a favourable opinion from professional fishers, while diversifying the activity by combining professional fishing with tourism-fishing is less attractive to professional fishers in the Majorca Island. This model of development is both acceptable to the stakeholders involved in the fishery and in line with current European policies (Marine Strategy Framework directive) which favour forms of spatial planning as fisheries management measures.
Europe
Socio-economic Aspects,Small Scale Fisheries,Conflicts,MPA,Fisheries Management
4
No
84
Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul and Johannes Herbeck. Migration and Translocal Livelihoods of Coastal Small-scale Fishers in Bangladesh. The Journal of Development Studies, 2013. DOI:10.1080/00220388.2013.766719
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Bangladesh
Based on qualitative fieldwork, this study analyses reasons and outcomes of fishers’ migration in Bangladesh. The results show that fishers’ livelihoods are characterised by a series of vulnerabilities and endemic poverty contributing to their migration decisions. However, fishers also migrate pro-actively to enhance their capacities and explore opportunities. The outcomes of migration are highly diverging: while for poorer fishers, migration is a way of coping with shocks, better resourced fishers can use it for asset accumulation. The importance of migration for their livelihoods and emerging networks across space generate forms of translocal households that coordinate their activities over long distances.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Migrants,Migration,Livelihood
4
No
85
Ratner, Blake D. and Edward H. Allison. Wealth, Rights, and Resilience: An Agenda for Governance Reform in Small-scale Fisheries. Development Policy Review, Vol 30 (4): 371–398, July 2012. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7679.2012.00581.x
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
The diversity of social, ecological and economic characteristics of small-scale fisheries in developing countries means that context-specific assessments are required to understand and address shortcomings in their governance. This article contrasts three perspectives on governance reform focused alternately on wealth, rights and resilience, and argues that – far from being incompatible – these perspectives serve as useful counterweights to one another, and together can serve to guide policy responses. In order to better appreciate the diversity in governance contexts for small-scale fisheries it puts forward a simple analytical framework focused on stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and accountability, and then outlines principles for identifying and deliberating reform options among local stakeholders.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Governance,wealth-based,rights-based,resilience,Policy,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
86
Franz, Nicole; Anthony Charles, Sloans Chimatiro, Sebastian Mathew, Friday Njaya, Robert Pomeroy and Lena Westlnd. An International Instrument for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries (SSF Guidelines): Implementation Strategies. IIFET 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/1957/33890
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
In 2011 the FAO Committee on Fisheries tasked FAO with the development of an international instrument in the form of guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries (SSF Guidelines). The SSF Guidelines will facilitate the empowerment and mobilization of stakeholders to promote change towards sustainable small-scale fisheries and hence facilitate the realisation of the sector’s potential to contribute to poverty alleviation, food and nutrition security, and economic growth. This process needs strong catalysts and follow-up to stimulate lasting and efficient change and there is a need to build bridges between different stakeholder visions, within the fisheries sector as well as outside, to ensure coherence and build political will. The session discussed modalities of engagement of different stakeholders to facilitate the future implementation of the SSF Guidelines, in particular with regard to information and research, capacity development, institutional arrangements and incentive structures
General
Small Scale Fisheries,guidelines
5
No
87
Hamel, Mélanie A. Serge Andréfouët and Robert L. Pressey. Compromises between international habitat conservation guidelines and small-scale fisheries in Pacific island countries. Conservation Letters, Volume 6, Issue 1, pages 46–57, February 2013. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00285.x
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries South Pacific Islands
Wallis, Alofi, and Futuna are three small islands in the central Pacific Ocean, characterized by different reef geomorphologies. Following a request from the local Environment Service, we developed an indicative conservation plan for each island with two objectives: (1) representing 20% of the extent of each coral reef habitat within no-take areas while (2) keeping all subsistence fishing grounds open for extraction. The first objective was more ambitious than the current Convention on Biological Diversity (Aichi) targets. We found that both objectives could not be achieved simultaneously and that large compromises are needed. Due to the small size of these islands, and the dependence of local communities on coral reef resources, the fishery objective significantly limited the extent of most habitats available for conservation. The problem is exacerbated if the conservation plan uses larger conservation units and more complex habitat typologies. Our results indicate that international conservation guidelines should be carefully adapted to small Pacific islands and that incentives to make feasible the necessary reductions in available fishing grounds will probably be needed.
Oceania
Small Scale Fisheries,Coral Reefs,Conservation,Subsistence Fisheries
4
No
88
Pomeroy, R.S. Managing overcapacity in small-scale fisheries in Southeast Asia. Marine Policy, Volume 36, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 520–527
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries South east Asia
It is now almost universally accepted that most of the nearshore fisheries in Southeast Asia are overfished. It is also accepted that overcapacity is one of the leading causes of this overfishing. The problem of addressing overcapacity in small-scale fisheries in Southeast Asia is much more complex than that of reducing overcapacity in industrial fleets. In order to manage capacity, managers need to measure and understand how much capacity currently exists in the fishery and what is the desirable level of capacity that best meets the set of management objectives. The only feasible solution to overcapacity may be based on a coordinated and integrated approach involving a mixed strategy of resource management, resource restoration and conservation, livelihoods and economic and community development, and restructured governance arrangements. The reduction of overcapacity implies an increased focus on people-related solutions and on communities.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Overcapacity,Fisheries Management
4
No
89
Ratner, Blake D., Edmund J.V. Oh and Robert S. Pomeroy. Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 107, 30 September 2012, Pages 131–139
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Philippines
Early efforts to apply the concept of fisheries co-management in Southeast Asia focused primarily on building the effectiveness of local management institutions and advocating the merits of the approach so that it would be applied in new sites, while gradually learning and adapting to a range of obstacles in practice. Today, with co-management widely embraced by the research community and adopted as policy by an increasing number of governments, a second-generation perspective has emerged. This perspective is distinguished by efforts to navigate and influence change in the broader institutional and governance context: (a) a more sophisticated appreciation of politics, power relations, and the role of the state, (b) efforts to manage resource competition beyond the fisheries sector, (c) building institutions for adaptation and learning, and (d) recognizing divergent values and goals influencing fisheries management. This paper traces the evolution of this second-generation perspective, noting how it has built on learning from early practice and how it has been cross-fertilized by theoretical innovations in related fields, notably resilience thinking and political ecology. We illustrate this evolution through analysis of experience in the Philippines, with a relatively long experience of learning and adaptation in fisheries co-management practice, and Vietnam, where fisheries co-management policies have been embraced more recently. Characterizing the second-generation perspective helps identify points of convergence in the research and policy community about what needs attention, providing a basis for more systematic cross-country and cross-regional learning.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Co-management,Governance,Adaptive management,resilience
4
No
90
Davis, A and K. Ruddle. Massaging the Misery: Recent Approaches to Fisheries Governance and the Betrayal of Small-Scale Fisheries. Human Organization. Vol 71(3):244-254.
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries World
Common assertions about the benefits for small-scale fisheries under co-management and human rights approaches become untenable in the context of neoliberalism, because they facilitate the penetration into communities of rationalities and operational methods that betray resource harvesters by undermining family life and cultural systems and destroying the local social organization of production. Based on neoclassical economics, neoliberalism does not recognize cultural, historical, and social characteristics and so cannot accommodate power relationships, social class inequalities and exclusion, social class-based exploitation, vested interests, and wealth appropriation that all must be overcome to deal effectively with inequity, poverty, and powerlessness. These weaknesses are ignored in the small-scale fisheries governance literature, which is characterized by a naïve faith in the magnanimity of the state to perform in a morally and socially positive manner. But the state is no benevolent patron of the public interest and democratic representation, although these are among the predominant underlying yet unstated assumptions in the recent approaches. Rather, based on property ownership and the "individualization" of rights and decision making, it facilitates empowered social classes to further increase wealth and capital accumulation. Although portrayed as benefits of the recent management approaches, democracy, popular participation, institution building, partnership, and local knowledge are sought by the state to legitimize the imposition of market discipline, not for their intrinsic value.
General
Small Scale Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Governance,Co-management,Human Rights
5
No
91
Isaacs, M. Recent progress in understanding small-scale fisheries in Southern Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. Volume 4, Issue 3, July 2012, Pages 338–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.06.002
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries South Africa
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), World Bank, Worldfish Center, International Collective in Support of Fish workers (ICFS), World Fisher Forum (WFF), international experts and researchers have all contributed to recent progress in understanding small-scale fisheries. The Big Number Project (BNP) has reconfirmed the importance, scale and size of this sector. Hence, it is crucial that fisheries governance and human rights based approaches secure social and economic justice for small-scale fishers and this should be in balance with environmental sustainability. This paper reviews recent progress in recognising and addressing issues in small-scale fisheries in southern Africa. Specifically it asks what approaches, frameworks, and concepts are driving the discussions and debates on small-scale fishing?
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Governance,Human Rights
5
No
92
Hauzer, Melissa; Philip Dearden and Grant Murray. The effectiveness of community-based governance of small-scale fisheries, Ngazidja island, Comoros. Marine Policy Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 346–354
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Comoros
Conventional top-down, exogenous approaches to fisheries management have been ineffective in more traditional and small-scale fisheries. Yet, there remains little understanding of the effectiveness of alternative approaches. This case-study of small-scale fisheries in the Comoros examines how effective local fishing associations are at managing common fisheries resources, and provides some understanding of the underlying characteristics of effectiveness. Emphasis is placed on assessing governance effectiveness according to characteristics appropriate within the local context, and on suggesting ways to enhance local institutional strength and capacity to manage resources. Qualitative methods were used to collect data on local governance structures and management tools, fishers’ knowledge and beliefs, and perceptions of the status of fisheries resources in four major fishing villages on the island of Ngazidja. Results show that fisheries management in the Comoros is informally shared between the State fisheries department, a national fishing syndicate, and village fishing associations. Village fishing associations play an active role in fisheries management by collectively designing, monitoring, and enforcing local regulations. Compliance with local regulations is high, primarily due to participatory decision-making, community-monitoring, and strong feelings of solidarity among fishers. Perceptions of the benefits of these regulations are also high. This suggests that by working within these pre-established informal management systems, collective governance of common pool resources can be achieved within communities, and feelings of empowerment and shared responsibility among resource users can lead to effective management practices
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Regulations,Participatory Management,participatory approach,Governance,Compliance,Community Based Management
4
No
93
Ziegler, Philippe E. Fishing tactics and fleet structure of the small-scale coastal fishery in Tasmania, Australia. Fisheries Research, Volumes 134–136, December 2012, Pages 52–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.08.011
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Australia
The small-scale coastal fishery in Tasmania, south-eastern Australia, uses a large number of fishing gear types to target a range of fish, shark and cephalopod species. This study applied multivariate analyses of catch and effort logbook records to identify fishing tactics (characterised by fishing gear, target species, location and month) and vessel groups (characterised by their fishing activities) for the 17 gear types used in the fishery. A total of 35 fishing tactics were defined, with up to 10, mostly species-specific, fishing tactics per gear type. Subsequently, 20 vessel groups were characterised that were categorised according to three degrees of specialisation and a deepwater component. The analysis highlighted the strongly-interlinked fishing tactics and the high level of flexibility in selecting target species and fishing tactics. This flexibility should be taken into consideration in stock assessments and the management of this fishery that have traditionally focussed on single fish species and individual fishing methods.
Australia/Oceania
Small Scale Fisheries,Fishing Methods,Fishing Gear
4
No
94
Teh, Lydia C. L. Louise S. L. Teh and Michael J. Meitner. Preferred Resource Spaces and Fisher Flexibility: Implications for Spatial Management of Small-Scale Fisheries. Human Ecology. April 2012, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 213-226
Documents and Reports
Small-scale fisheries Malaysia
Many fisheries management interventions are in the form of spatial regulations that change fishers’ access to fishing grounds. How fishers respond to regulations directly affects the ecological and socioeconomic outcomes of management objectives, but little attention is paid to fishers’ willingness and ability to make spatial adjustments. We investigate the spatial preferences of small-scale fishers in Sabah, Malaysia, within a framework of mental maps and perceptions. We find that the majority of fishers fish within preferred resource spaces that were heavily influenced by perceptions of safety. Most fishers exhibit low flexibility to adapt to spatial changes, based on i) unwillingness to travel beyond preferred resource spaces; ii) unwillingness to leave the fishery; and iii) low to no alternative employment opportunities. We emphasize the need to uncover and understand human dimension parameters to reduce uncertainty surrounding human behaviour, and ultimately facilitate the attainment of fisheries management objectives
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Fishing Grounds
4
No